The strain is one of the most common sports injuries at all. Together with the hamstring, the bundle of muscle tear, and the Muskelriss it belongs to the Group of so-called closed muscle injuries. Because the skin remains unaffected by the injury, so that a strain of the muscle from the outside is not visible.
Basically, a strain can occur anywhere: from seines or thigh muscles, back and shoulder muscles to the femur or abdominal muscles all skeletal muscles of a sprain can be affected.
In contrast to many other sports injuries such as a muscular rebound or a sport-related concussion a sprain occurs independently of external influences so not through direct trauma, for example by a kick or a blow to the thigh. It is characterized by gradually developed a strain. Also, it differs from the hamstring: it occurs usually abruptly after a sudden increase in load. One of the most common forms of the strain is the skewing of the adductor muscles on the inside of the thigh. Football players pull to particularly often this form of strain, for example, at the de-construction for the ball.
Regardless of the affected muscles strains are basically similar to: the muscle is overly stretched and then he quickly and sharply contracts (contracted). Accompanying factors increase the risk of a strain: among them a sufficiently heated muscle or a muscle that is tired by permanent and/or excessive load. Low ambient temperatures are also among the factors that favour a strain. Sufficient heating of the muscle in a warm-up programme is therefore especially important at low temperatures. What is the State of the muscle: A good fitness reduces risk, a poor state increases the risk of a strain.
The strain is among the Group of closed injuries of muscle, which also the hamstring, the bundle of muscle tear, and the Muskelriss. The severity of the muscle injury this increasing until the Muskelriss of the strain of the muscle. Im Unterschied zu allen anderen Muskelverletzungen dieser Gruppe kommt es bei der Muskelzerrung allerdings nicht zu einer Schädigung oder zum Riss von Muskelfasern, Muskelfaserbündeln oder gar des ganzen Muskels.
Bei einer Zerrung ist vielmehr die Regulation der Muskelspannung (Muskeltonus) gestört. Innerhalb weniger Augenblicke spannt sich der Muskel massiv an, zum Beispiel durch eine plötzlich eintretende Belastung. Die Folge: Der Muskel verhärtet sich, während begleitend Schmerzen auftreten, die sich krampfartig verstärken können. Bei einer Muskelzerrung müssen Betroffene die sportliche Aktivität in der Regel sofort beenden. They do not, then for example, that the strain of muscle a muscle tear developed from danger.
The causes of a disturbed regulation of muscle function, and not such as the hamstring in the injury of individual muscle fibers are in a strain. A sprain is raised for example by a fast load change, as it is created by a sharp start when running.
To join accompanying factors that increase the likelihood of a strain in addition. These factors, especially a muscle strength, which is insufficient circulation due to low ambient temperatures and/or insufficient warm up is next to an exhausted muscles. A poor general condition, for example through an illness like a cold, but also inappropriate footwear, as well as specific orthopedic specialties (e.g. a/lowering-squat foot) increase the risk of the occurrence of strains. A lack of fluid and electrolytes, as well as an unbalanced diet also help to increase the risk of a sprain.
In addition encourage banned substances that serve the fast muscle building, known as anabolic steroids, a strain. See specially is today disputed whether the active substance approved by some athletes to improve performance creatine increases the risk of strains.
A strain is characterized in particular by symptoms such as cramping some pain in the affected muscle. In many cases, the muscle as a result of a strain works only limited or no longer. In addition, when a strain, muscle spasms can occur as a symptom. The muscle hardens. Often, a strain developed slowly with continuously increasing complaints. This distinguishes them from sports injuries such as the hamstring, which occurs suddenly and unexpectedly.
A strain begins with symptoms such as an unpleasant or tense feeling in the affected muscle, for example, in the thigh. This feeling increases when a strain in the course of time to a hit in the muscle, which finally goes over in pain, which can strengthen krampfartig.
Pain and muscle hardening
The pain that occur in connection with a strain caused by the local inflammatory response that triggers the strain. It is also characteristic that sufferers try the tension associated with the increases and to cause hardening of the muscle, by shaking of the muscles, which is usually unsuccessful.
A strain exists in contrast to other muscle injuries such as for example the hamstring to bleeding in the area of the affected muscle, because there are no damage or cracks of muscular fibres.
In a strain, the doctor is the diagnosis based solely on the occurring symptoms: common pain, a significantly impaired muscle function, as well as additional muscle spasms and a hardening of the muscle provide clear evidence of a strain. The doctor will scan the affected muscle to pressure and muscle hardness out to confirm the diagnosis with a sprain is suspected. Moreover a functional analysis in the diagnosis of a strain: whether, and if so the active and passive stretching of the affected muscle is how painful? Is it painful to the burden of the muscle? What is the loss of energy caused by the strain?
Diagnostic procedures such as an ultrasound or a magnetic resonance imaging are indeed Diagnostics not to use with a strain. Because a strain does not lead to noticeable changes in the muscle fibers and is invisible for imaging Diagnostics and the eye.
When a strain, the therapy focuses primarily on the treatment of the symptoms. Because when a strain of muscle is damaged not structurally, so recognizable. Rather, it is a lapse of muscle tension which is caused by an error of the muscle. When a sprain treatment aims therefore to eliminate the muscular error and to relax the affected muscle.
PECH schema: Rest, ice, compression, high storage
The therapy of a strain begins with a rapid initial treatment to the so-called PECH schema: P ause, E is, C ompression, H ochlagern. Any sporting activity should be stopped immediately in cases of suspected a strain. The injured muscle or the affected extremity should high are stored. The appropriate cooling reduces the pain that occur as a result of the strain and slows the inflammatory response.
If possible, it is advisable to create a dressings in the course of the treatment of a strain and to combine this with the cooling. The so-called to wrap of an ice pack with a dressings prevents direct contact between skin and ice and local frostbite. Another alternative in the treatment of a strain is to cool the injury with a bandage soaked in ice water. Mit einem zusätzlichen Druckverband wird darüber ein Plastikbeutel mit Crash-Eis (Eisbrei) befestigt.
Auch nach erfolgter Erst-Behandlung ist es bei einer Zerrung sinnvoll, einen Druckverband anzulegen und zusätzlich ein Sportgel auf den betroffenen Muskelbereich aufzutragen. Verletzte sollten darauf achten, den Druckverband nicht zu eng anzubringen. Durch den Druckverband entstehende Schmerzen, das Auftreten von Durchblutungs- und Gefühlsstörungen sowie die Einschränkung der Beweglichkeit deuten auf einen zu eng anliegenden Druckverband hin.
After the first treatment, the person concerned can shower short, but not too hot. As long as it is not entirely clear whether it is a strain or a hamstring, he should take a shower with the dressings.
Medications for pain
A strain is very painful, so in addition analgesic drugs can be taken in the treatment in consultation with the doctor, such as ibuprofen or diclofenac. You reduce the pain and contain in addition the inflammatory response as a result of the strain. In addition an association with an ointment can be applied, which contains for example an agent such as heparin or Aescin. These substances have on a strain also anti-inflammatory, swelling off and soothing. Also the use of arnica to positively different reports according to troubleshoot a strain on the healing process.
However, the use of enzyme preparations is controversial today among athletes and specially. While swears a part on the use of these products when it comes to a strain to the right treatment, the other part as ineffective rejects them.
Rest and physiotherapy
Depending on the scope and extent of the strain a rest the affected muscle should be allowed about five days. In the treatment of a strain physical therapy in the form of a physical therapy is useful in addition. It contributes to the relaxation of the muscle and thus promotes the regeneration capacity. In addition it ensures to get the power of the affected muscle. A treatment applied often in connection with a strain is the muscle release technique, where the muscle in the change is tense and relaxed. In addition, disciplines such as aqua jogging or training with the bike Ergometer for stepping up to the original performance of the muscle is suitable after a sprain.
Applies regardless of whether it is the muscle release technique or another form of exercise: all exercises are useful only if they cause no pain. The gradual development of muscle performance is based on the border of the transition between freedom from pain and onset pain. This, the professionally guided advanced after a sprain can consist of different elements, such as such as the load-free exercises, dynamic exercises, stretching exercises, or stress testing by the sport physician. After each lab, it is advisable to cool the muscle.
Basically it is a strain, accompanying therapy on it to make sure to drink enough liquid. Mineral water, Apple Juice Spritzer or so-called electrolyte drinks are particularly suitable. Since the majority of strains in the leg muscles occur – a strain in the thigh, calf, as well as in the area of the adductor is very often – it is useful, partly to relieve the affected leg muscle for the duration of the sprain. With a strong, painful strain affected when going for a few days can access Unterarmgehstützen.
A strain takes about two to three weeks depending on the extent and scope, until it is fully healed. The duration of a strain depends also on the healing process, which is individually different. The course can positively influence if the appropriate initial treatment begins at an early stage and joins a professional follow-up. When a strain so the duration of complaints can be up to the full healing reduce.
You can prevent a strain by to properly deal with the central risk factors: to them, especially a low ambient temperature is one. The muscles should be warmed up carefully therefore in cool to cold weather conditions, effectively prevent a skew to. As minimum warm-up time 15 minutes should schedule.
In the reverse case this does not mean, that there is less risk of strain in warm weather. Although the higher ambient temperature reduces the cold-related risk of a strain, however, the body – loses caused by higher temperatures – even more fluid and electrolytes through increased sweating. This in turn increases the risk of a sprain. It must therefore regularly and in particular in time to compensate for the shortcomings in terms of liquid and electrolytes.
Suitable sports equipment important
In addition, the choice of the appropriate sports equipment is helping to prevent a strain. You should rise up so sports-oriented clothing and appropriate footwear. Additional deposits for the sports shoes can be useful for orthopedic problems such as such as the Plattfüßen.
Blood circulation-promoting ointments unsuitable
The rub with circulation-promoting ointments, creams or solutions may not replace the targeted warm up. Although they cause an increased blood flow, however, the penetration depth is so low that only the upper layers of the skin are more circulation. Deeper skin areas unaffected as well as the muscles of the circulation-promoting effect. Therefore, such preparations to prevent a strain are inappropriate. They convey only the supposed sense of good blood circulation and warming of the treated muscles while actually only the skin is heated.
By a healthy, balanced diet, a good health condition, as well as a sporting load which is appropriate to the respective State, which also reduce the risk of a strain.